科技英语翻译(1-3章)

发布时间:2021-10-20 19:28:53

科技英语翻译 1.1 翻译的标准 第 1 节 翻译练* 1 The power plant is the heart of a ship.动力装置是船舶的心脏。 The power unit for driving the machines is a 50-hp induction motor. 驱动这些机器的动力装置是一台 50 马力的感应电动机。 第 1 节 翻译练* 2 Semiconductor devices, called transistors, are replacing tubes in many applications. 半导体装置也称为晶体管,在许多场合替代电子管。 Cramped conditions means that passengers’ legs cannot move around freely. 空间狭窄,旅客的两腿就不能自由活动。 All bodies are known to possess weight and occupy space. 我们知道,所有的物体都有重量并占据空间。 第 1 节 翻译练* 3 The removal of minerals from water is called softening.去除水中的矿物质叫做软化。 A typical foliage leaf of a plant belonging to the dicotyledons is composed of two principal parts: blade and petiole. 双子叶植物典型的营养叶由两个主要部分组成:叶片和叶柄。 1.2 对译者的要求 第 4 节 翻译练* 1 Einstein’s relativity theory is the only one which can explain such phenomena. 爱因斯坦的相对论是能解释这种现象的唯一理论。 (直译) All four (outer planets) probably have cores of metals, silicates, and water. 这四颗外层行星的内核可能都由金属、硅酸盐和水构成。 (意译) The designer must have access to stock lists of the materials he employs.设计师必须备有所使用材料的储备表。 (意译) Part adjustment and repair must be performed on regular basis if an acceptable printed product is to be the end product. 要使印刷品的质量达到要求,部件调试及修理就必须定期进行。 (意译) 第 4 节 翻译练* 2 The most important of the factors affecting plant growth is that it requires the supply of water. 植物生长的各因素中最重要的是水的供应。 (合译) The doctor analyzed the blood sample for anemia.医生对血样作了分析,看是不是贫血症。 (分译) The apparent change in size of the sun is caused by dust in the air near the horizon. 太阳的大小看起来有变化,这是由于靠**较叩目掌杏谐玖6鸬摹 (分译) These fragments of rock and iron range from thousand kilometers in diameter to less than one. 这些石块和铁块的碎片大小不等,大的直径有 1000 公里,小的不到 1 公里。 (分译) Manufacturing processes may be classified as unit production with small quantities being made and mass production with large numbers of identical parts being produced. 制造过程可以分为单件生产和大量生产。前者指的是生产少量的零件,后者则是指生产大量相同的零件。 (分译) 第 4 节 翻译练* 3 Cartography is the science of making maps.制图学是研究绘制地图的科学。 (增译) Many elements in nature are found to be mixtures of different isotopes. 人们发现,自然界里许多元素,都是各种不同的同位素的混合物。 (增译) The two units used most frequently in electricity are ampere and volt: this is the unit of voltage and that of current. 电学上最常用的两个单位是安培和伏特:后者是电压的单位,前者是电流的单位。 (增译) That like charges repel but opposite charges attract is one of the fundamental laws of electricity. 同性电荷相斥,异性电荷相吸是电学的一个基本规律。 (省译) 第 4 节 翻译练* 4 Almost any insulated body processes to some extent the ability to retain for a time an electric charge. 几乎任何一种绝缘体都多少具有保留电荷一段时间的能力。 The angular contact bearing provides a greater thrust capacity.向心推力轴承有较大的轴向承载能力。 The properties of the weld can be altered by varying the grain orientation. 通过改变晶粒的方向可以改变焊缝的性能。 2.1 词义的选择 第 1 节 翻译练* 1

The spindle rotates simultaneously round two axes at right angles to each other. 锭子同时绕两个互相垂直的轴旋转。 (介) The earth isn’t completely round; it is slightly flattened at the poles.地球并非完全是圆的,它的两极略扁*。 (形容词) In each round of operation the particle picks up energy from the oscillating electric field. 粒子每运转一周都从振荡电场获取新的能量。 (名词) An electron is an extremely small corpuscle with negative charge which rounds about the nucleus of an atom. 电子是绕原子核转动且带有负电荷的极其微小的粒子。 (动词) Her waist measures forty inches round.她腰围 40 英寸。 (副词) 第 1 节 翻译练* 2 Rate of penetration was found to be proportional to the net pressure applied by the tool. 人们发现钻孔速度与工具所受的净压力成正比。 Scientists are constantly striving to find fast and convenient way of obtaining quantitative data. 科学家们总是力求找到快速而简便的方法获得定量数据。 To find the area of a square or oblong, you merely multiply its length by its width. 求一正方形或长方形的面积,你只需将其长度乘以宽度。 Certain isotopes are not found in nature.有些同位素在自然界中并不存在。 New fibers find expanding applications in engineering and industry. 新发明的纤维在工程和工业领域得到越来越广泛的应用。 Kangaroos are found in Australia.大袋鼠产于澳大利亚。 This plant is found in the sea near the mouth of rivers.这种植物生长在*河口的海中。 Microcomputers have found their application in the production of genius sensors. Plastics find wide application in our daily life. 微型计算机已经应用于智能传感器的生产中。 塑料在我们的日常生活中得到广泛应用。 第 2 节 翻译练* 1 The cause of rolling resistance is the deformation of mating surfaces of the rolling element and the raceway on which it rolls. 滚动阻力的起因在于滚动体的配合面和它滚动的滚道的变形。 (技术性引申) Traditionally, NC programming has been performed offline with the machine commands being contained on a punched tape. 通常,数控机床的编程是脱机完成的,指令载于穿孔带上。 (技术性引申) The occurrence of large mats of floating algae may result in the death of many fish from lack of oxygen. 大片大片漂浮的藻类的出现导致很多鱼因缺氧而死亡。 (修辞引申) The splitting of the uranium or plutonium nucleus is accompanied by the release of very considerable amount of energy. 随着铀核和钚核的裂变,会有极其巨大的能量释放处理。 (修辞性引申) The major contributors in component technology have been in the semiconductor. 元件技术中起主要作用的是半导体元件 The distance between the two plates is small compared with their linear dimensions. 两板之间的距离相对于其宽度和长度而言比较小。 (具体化引申) Just as different solids and liquids vary in density, so do gases and vapors. 正像不同的固体和液体的密度不同一样,不同的气体和蒸汽的密度也不同。 (具体化引申) The Curies believed that there was something in nature that gave out radiation. 居里夫妇坚信,自然界中有一种物质能放出辐射能。 (具体化引申) Obviously, there is much room for the improvement in the structure. 显然,其结构还有较大的改进余地。 (抽象化引申) At present coal is the most common food of a steam plant. 目前,煤是火电厂最常用的能源。 (抽象化引申) The facts have been set down in black and white. 这些事实已经清清楚楚地记录下来了。 (抽象化引申) 2.3 词类的转换 第 3 节 翻译练* 1 Each time a sample was drawn for color determination. 每次取一个标本测定颜色。 What is certain is that the oil spill has delivered a devastating blow to the ecology of the Persian Gulf. 可以肯定,这场石油泄漏事件对波斯湾的生态是个惨重的打击。 We should get familiar with different systems of units. 我们应该熟悉各种(计量)单位制。 These decision-making processes are applicable to the entire field of engineering design--- not just to mechanical engineering design. 这些判定过程可以应用于工程设计的整个领域,而不仅仅限于机械工程设计。 Hydrogen instead of air is frequently used for cooling large turbogenerators.常以氢气代替空气来冷却大型汽轮发电机。 When the war was over, it was discovered that the Germans were nowhere near success in developing nuclear weapons.

第二次世界大战结束后,人们发现德国人在研制核武器方面离成功还很远。 Various precautions have been taken against leakage.已采取了各种措施防止渗漏。 Once inside the oven panels are subjected to a temperature of 365°F 一旦进入烘干炉板材就处于 365 华氏度的温度条件下 Value is defined as a numerical ratio, the ratio of the function, or performance, to the cost. 价值的定义是功能或性能与成本的数值比。 This new model should appeal to potential buyers.这种新式样对潜在的买主肯定有吸引力。 Galileo’s experiments are not difficult, nor is there any evidence that he performed them with exceptional skill. 伽利略的实验并不难,也没有证据表明他是以非凡的技能来做实验的。 Sometimes a scientist observes an object and its features, for example a star or a bird; sometimes he observes an event, which is something that happens at a particular time. 有时科学家观察一物体及其特征,例如一颗星或一只鸟;有时科学 家观察某一事件,即在一特定时间所发生的事。 Earthquakes are generally more destructive of life than volcanic eruptions.地震对于生命的破坏通常大于火山爆发。 Heat should be applied slowly to avoid localized overheating.应当慢慢加热,以避免发生局部过热现象。 How rapidly a fuel burns depends on how thoroughly it is mixed with oxygen or air. 一种燃料燃烧的速度有多快,取决于它与氧气或空气混合的均匀程度。 This is why a coil is often referred to as an inductor. 这就是线圈常被叫做电感器的原因。 第 3 节 翻译练* 2 Practically all of the useful properties of materials are strongly dependent on their internal structure. 几乎材料的一切有用特性都与其内部的结构有密切的关系。 The metal casts well.这种金属有良好的铸造性能。 A wire for conducting electric current is covered with plastic; the plastic is insulation round the wire. 传导电流的导线包有塑料,该塑料便是导线周围的绝缘材料。 There are many ways of determining the distribution of the magnetism about a magnet. 有许多方法来确定磁场周围的磁力分布状况。 Good lubrication keeps the bearings from being damaged. 润滑良好可保护轴承不受损伤。 Safety in a power plant is of great importance.安全在电厂是非常重要的。 Most modern transmitters employ solid state circuits. 现代发报机大多采用固体电路。 E-Chemmerce now offers two main levels of online business intelligence on chemical, plastic and energy e-commerce. 《电子化工商务》目前主要提供两个层次的有关化学、塑料和能源电子商务的在线商务信息服务。 These images tend to exaggerate the robot’s similarity to human anatomy and behavior. 这些概念常常夸大了机器人与人类在形体和行为方面的相似之处。 Aluminum remained an expensive rarity till the discovery of the electrolytic process for reducing aluminum in 1886. 直到 1886 年人们发现电解法还原铝之前,铝一直是一种昂贵的珍品。 Since some materials are not damaged easily as others, the possibility exists of developing radiation-resistant parts. 由于有些材料不像另一些那样容易被损坏,所以有可能研制出防辐射的零件。 第 4 节 翻译练* 2 第 4 节 翻译练* 1 This action externally appears like the discharge of a capacitor.这一作用从外表上看来像电容器的放电现象。 Once out of the earth’s gravity, an astronaut is affected by still another problem--- weightlessness. 一旦离开了地球的引力范围,宇航员又遇到了另一个问题——失重。 By minimizing the microscopic imperfections scientists are making far stronger ceramics. 科学家们正通过最大限度地减小微观缺陷来制造强度高得多的陶瓷。 Atomic cells are small and very light, as compared to ordinary dry ones. 和普通电池相比,原子电池体积小、重量轻。 Transistors can make previously large equipment much smaller. 晶体管能使原先体积大的设备变得小得多。 Astronomers have evidence of a few other stars too, which might have black holes as companions. 天文学家有证据表明,还有其他一些恒星也可能有黑洞作为伴星。 The key to the new materials is researchers’ increasing ability to manipulate substances at the molecular level. 开发新材料的关键在于研究人员不断提高在分子一级上处理物质的能力。 The largest and most expensive products cannot, because of their size, be testable in the factory. 最大最贵的产品,因为体积大,在该工厂里是不能检验的。

Cold rolling enables the operators to produce rolls of accuracy and uniformity, and with a better surface finish. 冷轧可使操作工生产出精确度高、均匀度好的轧制件,并具有更好的表面光洁度。 All these factors play a key role in formulation of the model.在拟订模型时,所有这些因素都将起到关键性的作用。 PCs are not the most stable, and with video editing you have to be extra careful. 个人电脑一般并不太稳定,所以,进行视频编辑时需要加倍小心。 This method makes it easy to identify the various components. 这个方法使人们很容易识别各种不同的构成成分 第 4 节 翻译练* 2 It was estimated that the power of an average horse is equal to 500 feet-pounds per second. 据估计,一匹普通马的功率等于 500 英尺-磅力/秒 Panel patch is one gauge heavier than thickness of original skin.补块比原板的厚度大一号。 Studies have shown that information can be communicated to people many times faster in a graphic form than in written form.众多研究表明,以图形表示的信息被人们接受的速度比以文字表示的快许多倍 The chemist is making an analysis of the poison.药剂师正对毒性进行分析。 It appears that the construction of the dam has had a considerable effect on the ecology of the region. 看来,建造水坝对这一地区的生态已经有相当大的影响。 The receiver will operate reliably no matter what happens. 无论发生什么情况,这台接收机都将可靠地工作。 Radiant, electrical and chemical energies can all be turned into heat. 辐射能、电能和化学能这三种能均可转变为热能。 The frequency, wave length and speed of sound are closely related. 频率、波长和声速三者是密切相关的。 Noise figure is minimized by parametric amplifier. 采用参量放大器即可将噪音系数减小至最低限度。 In the absence of sufficient knowledge confusion exists in classifying a specimen as a butterfly or a moth. 如果没有足够的知识,就分不清标本是属蝶类还是蛾类。 Lead can be hammered into very thin sheets without being broken. 铅能被锤成很薄的薄片而不破裂。 There are a number of devices that give an electric current when light falls on them, without any chemical changes taking place.有许多器件在受光照射时能产生电流,但不发生任何化学变化。 2.5 词的省译 第 5 节 翻译练* 1 The fact that the concrete is slow in setting is no sign that it is of poor quality. 混凝土凝固得慢并不表示其质量差。 Such an engine is called an internal combustion engine. 这种发动机称为内燃机。 The symptoms of hepatitis are similar no matter which virus is involved.肝炎不管是由何种病毒引起的,其症状均大同小异 This critical deficiency was itself due to three factors which interacted with each other over the entire period. 这个关键性的逆差来源于三个始终互相影响的因素 The properties change in going from carbon to graphite. 碳转变成石墨时,其性质也发生了变化 The design choices hinge upon considerations of gain, noise figure, and so forth. 设计选择的关键在于考虑增益、噪音系数等等。 Temperatures may reach 700°C and surface oxidation becomes critical. 温度高达 700 摄氏度,表面氧化便成为关键问题。 If the atomic nucleus of a heavy element is split, a large amount of energy is released. 分裂一重元素的原子核,会释放出很大的能量。 The discovery of enzymes is very important because it gave impetus to a series of experiments. 酶的发现很重要,因为它推动了一系列试验的进行。 Apart from the fact that it may become hot, no apparent change occurs in a metal when it is carrying a current. 金属有电流通过时,除了金属可能变热外没有什么显著变化。 This equipment forms an integral part of many advanced systems. 这个设备是许多先进系统不可缺少的一部分。 There was a rise in temperature, and as a result, the component failed. 温度升高了,结果元件出了故障。 If there is little cooling water available, a diesel engine makes an excellent prime mover for generation below 10,000 kVA. 如果能利用的冷却水不多,则柴油发动机可以成为极好的发电 10000 千伏安以下的原动机。 There was a block in the pipe and the water could not flow away. 水管被东西堵住,水流不出去。 2.6 重复法 第 6 节 翻译练* 1 The properties of gas are quite different from those of liquid. 气体的性质与液体的性质大不相同。 (重复名词) The electric resistance of copper is not so large as that of iron. 铜的电阻不像铁的电阻那样大。 (重复名词) The three gas laws are true of all gases, as well as of air. 气体三定律不但适用于空气,也适用于所有气体。 (重复动词)

Matter changes not only in state but also in volume. 物质不仅形态改变而且体积也改变。 (重复动词) Continuous data can be expressed in either fractions or whole numbers. 连续资料可以用分数表示,也可以用整数表示。 (重复动词) 3.1 名词的译法 第 1 节 翻译练* 1 In an unusual application, this organization uses a fingerprint scanner to monitor the comings and goings of its residents. 一个不同寻常的用途是:这个机构使用指纹扫描器监视居住人员的进出。 A capacitor is used to eliminate sparking when a circuit containing inductance is suddenly opened. 当含有电感的电路突然断开时,可用电容器消除火花。 第 1 节 翻译练* 2 The comparison reveals that the error is due to aliasing. 比较结果表明,误差是由于名称不同而造成的。 The scans confirmed that the subjects’ brains dealt with words in ways that contradict one hoary old idea. 扫描结果证实,受试者的大脑处理词的方式同一种古老的旧观念不一致。 The latest research with radioactive isotopes has shown that this assumption is quite wrong. 对放射性同位素的最新研究结果表明,这种设想是完全错误的。 Metals differ in the ease with which they give up electrons and enter into chemical combination. 各种金属放出电子和参与化学反应的难易程度不一。 Internal-shoe drum brakes provide better protection from water and dust. 内蹄式鼓形制动器的防水、防尘性能比较好。 People on earth are protected from the dangerous ultraviolet radiation of the sun by a layer or ozone that spans the planet and absorbs the radiation. 地球上的人们受到包围着地球并能吸收辐射的一层臭氧层的保护,从而免受危险的太阳紫外线辐射的伤害。 According to the molecular theory the temperature of an object depends on the average speed of its molecules. 根据分子理论的原理,物体的温度取决于其分子的*均速度。 Effectiveness of temperature control depends upon the amount of lubricant supplied, the ambient temperature, and the external cooling.温度控制的效果取决于润滑剂的用量、环境温度以及外部的冷却设施。 第 1 节 翻译练* 3 Particular attention should be given to hoses to ensure that chafing does not occur. 要特别注意软管,保证没有擦伤。 The primary concern of electrical engineering is the doing of work by the delivery of energy. 电工学主要关注的是通过输送能量做功的情况。 Gene piracy is not new. 窃取基因不是新鲜事。 All plants and animals need carbon for growth. 所有动植物均需要碳才能生长。 第 1 节 翻译练* 4 The experiment was a success. 这个试验是成功的。 Semiconductor devices can perform a variety of control function in electronic equipment. 半导体在电子设备中能起各种各样的控制作用。 3.2 冠词的译法 第 2 节 翻译练* 1 A polymer is a substance of high molecular weight. 聚合物是一种高分子的物质。 Being a good insulator, rubber is often used in cables. 橡胶是一种良好的绝缘体,所以经常使用在电缆上。 The patient was administered the mixture twice a week. 这种混合剂病人每周服用两次。 These machines may be oiled once or twice a month. 这些机器每个月可以加一次或两次油。 第 2 节 翻译练* 2 A bearing can be defined as a member specifically designed to support moving machine components. 轴承可以定义为一种专门用于支撑运动着的机器零件的构件。 Use a transformer and power at low voltage can be changed into power at high voltage. 使用变压器可将低压电转变为高压电 An object at rest has no kinetic energy, its velocity being zero. 静止的物体没有动能,因为它的速度为零 第 2 节 翻译练* 3 on a large scale 大规模地 a majority of 大多数的 a wealth of 大量的 as a result 结果,因此 第 2 节 翻译练* 4 The machine is intended for grinding the top and bottom surfaces of tungsten carbide tips. 该机床是供磨削硬质合金刀片上下表面用的。 The mechanism has been termed cumulative feedback inhibition. 这种机制就叫做累加反馈抑制。

第 2 节 翻译练* 5 The basic job of the computer is the processing of information. 计算机的基本任务是处理信息。 The main effect is to raise the fundamental slosh mode frequency. 主要作用在于提高基本的晃动频率。 第 3 章 总复*题 Other factors affect the configuration of the total system. 另一些因素则将影响整个系统的结构。 In normal flight the hatch doors fair into the fuselage. 飞行正常时,舱门与机身*整贴合 Energy can neither be created, nor destroyed by any means known to man. 用人们已知的方法,既不能创造能量也不能消灭能量 It is customary to refer to design levels as high or low on component complexity. *惯上根据部件的复杂程度把设计级称为高设计级和低设计级。 The main economy of the system stems from the ability to move cars in a continuous train without uncoupling. 此系统的主要经济之处在于它能移动列车的车厢而不必将它们脱钩分开。 He is a stranger to the operation of the electronic computer. 他对电子计算机的操作是陌生的。 A key element in system capacity planning is the financial cost of performance. 系统能力计划中关键因素是性能的金融成本。 The assembler can expand the key words in the assembly code into their full instruction set. 这种汇编程序能把汇编码中的关键字扩展成完整的指令集。 The flame does not touch the flask directly. 火焰没有直接接触烧瓶。 The study of the strength of solids involves the study of the defects in the crystalline structure. 研究固体的强度,就必须研究晶体结构中的缺陷。 The problem was solved by the provision of a compensating jet. 通过安装一个补偿喷嘴,解决了这个问题。 The rusting of iron is the slow chemical combination of the elements iron and oxygen in moist atmosphere. 铁生锈是铁元素和氧元素在湿空气中缓慢化合的现象。 The decay of organic matter is a slow oxidation by oxygen in the air.有机物的腐烂是空气中的氧引起的一种缓慢氧化过程。 In order to improve a certain kind of battery, Edison spent almost ten years and made nearly 50,000 experiments. 为了改善一种电池的性能,爱迪生花了差不多十年时间,做了* 50000 次试验。


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